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Health & Wellness

What are The Factors Affecting Health and Wellness 

In today’s article, we will know what the factors affecting health and wellness . Our life is constantly influenced by risks and circumstances that can jeopardize our general well-being.

Among these factors are hereditary genetic conditions, the bioecological and psychosocial environment in which individuals are submerged, the person’s daily health care, and lifestyles or habits (see Figure 1-3). Of all these factors, the most important are lifestyles or behaviour. What are the factors affecting health? Read on for details on factors that affect health.

Heredity/Genetic Factors

It refers to the transfer of the biological characteristics of the parents to the child. This factor can cause a genetic predisposition towards disease. It is usually not controllable by humans. This means that sooner or later, the individual will have to suffer from the condition predisposed by her parents’ genes.

Inherited diseases encompass mental disorders (e.g., schizophrenia), infectious diseases, coronary heart disease (affecting the coronary arteries of the heart), diabetes mellitus or saccharin (resulting from improper insulin production or utilization, leading to hyperglycemia), haemophilia (resulting from the absence of blood clotting, causing bleeding), sickle cell anemia (characterized by abnormal/diseased red blood cells), and others.

Today, scientific research is directed toward eliminating genetic diseases through genetic engineering, genetic counselling, and health education factors affecting wellness factors that influence health. This factor makes up 16% of what determines an individual’s health degree.


The environmental factor represents all the external element of the human body which surrounds or is interrelated with the individual, over which the person has a certain degree of control.

The environment can be of physical-ecological, biological and sociocultural origin. The physical-ecological environment includes weather and climate, seasons, housing, soil/land, sanitary conditions, water, electricity, food supplies, medicines, radiation, clean or polluted air, recreational facilities, automobiles, hospitals, lots, and school buildings.

On the other hand, biological factors represent all things that have life, such as fauna (animals), flora (plants), other people, germs, disease vectors, reservoirs, and disease agents. Finally, sociological or cultural factors are those created solely by human beings. The social comprises the interactions between people.

This includes overcrowding, housing quality, working conditions, physical and social security, affection, communication, medical assistance, work, progress, and wealth distribution factor affecting health. The cultural factor represents those patterns of culture at a given time and place.

The pattern of life follows from generation to generation, i.e., the habits, way of thinking, creating and feeling.

Also, it can be described as the set of capacities that the human being acquires as a member of the society in which he lives, i.e., his knowledge, beliefs, customs, social status, law, morals, and arts, among others. 21% of the individual’s ability to control disease results from his environment. what are the factors that affect health?

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Health Care (Doctor and Hospital)

It refers to how the individual cares for her health and stays healthy. It is based on preventive medicine and proper care of the patient. The person can control 10% of these factors that affect our health factors that can affect health.

Behaviour or Lifestyle 

How the individual interacts with the environment describes what behaviour is. This factor results from the interaction of physical-ecological, psychological, sociocultural and spiritual factors.

This interaction can be positive or negative, depending mainly on personal decisions that affect well-being and health determinants. Only the individual himself has control over his actions. It is a matter of selection of individual responsibility. Lifestyles are patterns of behaviour, values and way of life that characterize an individual, group or social class.

More specifically, lifestyle factors represent the daily practices, habits, and activities that affect an individual’s health. These factors that can affect the quality of the lifestyle are the behaviours of each individual, their relationships and the decisions that the person makes (see Figure 1-4) four factors influencing health.

The Behaviours

There are two types of behaviours one is welfare, and the other is risk (see Figure 1-5). Well-being or healthy behaviours represent an action that helps prevent disease and accidents, promotes individual and collective health, and improves the quality of the environment (see Table 1-1).

On the contrary, risk behaviour is an action that increases the incidence of illnesses and accidents, threatens personal health and that of others, and helps destroy the environment.

Perform Regular Physical Exercises.

It is recommended at least 3 times a week. The types of exercises recommended are those that develop cardiorespiratory tolerance or aerobic capacity (e.g., walking, jogging, running, cycling, swimming, among others). In addition, exercises that promote muscle-tendon development should be practised (e.g., stretching, squats or “sit-ups”, among others).

Regular physical exercises and physical activity help prevent hypokinetic diseases (those conditions that could result from a sedentary life), such as heart and coronary diseases, hypercholesterolemia (high blood cholesterol levels), hypertension, diabetes mellitus,

osteoporosis, conditions/pain in the lower back, obesity, muscle and joint disorders, among others (Allsen, Harrison, & Vance, 1997, p. 4; Corbin & Lindsey, 1997, pp. 5, 25-26 (Heyward, 1998, p. 2; Nieman, 1986, p. 33; Sharkey, 1984, p. 4). Furthermore, they improve the capacity to do physical work and the quality of life.

Use Free Time Effectively Through Healthy Recreational Activities. 

Recreation describes engaging in certain activities (e.g., practising exercises/sports, admiring nature, listening to music, watching a feature film, playing board or computer games, reading a book, browsing the shops in the malls) social factors affecting health and wellness. commercials perform mental relaxation techniques, among others)

that are carried out during the individual’s free time (Meléndez, 1999, pp. 19-20). Recreational practice helps us improve our quality of life and well-being in all dimensions (physical, mental, emotional, social and spiritual). Currently, recreation helps us treat and rehabilitate certain special conditions, such as mental-emotional illnesses and physical handicaps.

This is therapeutic recreation (Meléndez, 1999, pp. 267-268). Furthermore, it has been suggested that recreation can help engage young people and adolescents with sedentary tendencies in greater participation in regular physical activities (Huntsman, 1999).

Practice Correct Eating Habits

Meals should be balanced and include a variety of foods. Appropriate nutritional behaviours include:

  • Always eating breakfast.
  • Reducing consumption of foods high in saturated fat/cholesterol, sugar and salt to levels that are not harmful to health.
  • Preferring the consumption of polyunsaturated fats and foods high in fibre and starches.
  • Maintaining the ideal/desirable weight and the percentage of body fat in proportions that are not dangerous to health, among others.

Effectively Control Negative Stress (Tensions)

This is a very important aspect of mental and emotional well-being.

To maintain adequate mental and emotional well-being, experts suggest: 1) adapting to life situations that induce frustrations and emotional issues (by practicing relaxation exercises, meditation, ensuring sufficient rest, and engaging in exercises or constructive recreational activities); and 2) eliminating sources or causes of tension, as much as possible.

No Smoking Cigarettes, Cigars, Pipes, or Chewing Tobacco

There is no moderation in smoking. Why shouldn’t you smoke? Firstly, smoking is related to heart disease/coronary atherosclerosis, lung disease, cancer, etc.

In addition, chewing tobacco can cause cancer, gastrointestinal and dental problems. Furthermore, non-smoker exposed constantly and directly to smoke from smokers is affected similarly.

This phenomenon is termed passive smoking, and research reveals that non-smokers face an equivalent (or higher) risk of acquiring smoking-induced diseases compared to regular smokers, as they frequently involuntarily inhale smoke from smokers.

Refrain from Drinking Alcoholic Beverages or, if Consumed, Drinking in Moderation.

However, the potential alcoholic should not drink alcoholic beverages. Regular alcohol consumption can cause: liver diseases (e.g., cirrhosis) and other physical conditions (e.g., diabetes mellitus and obesity), nutritional deficiencies, psychosocial problems, and traffic accidents.

Moderate or Eliminate the Consumption of Beverages that Contain Caffeine (e.g., Caffeinated Coffee, Tea, and Cola)

While the conclusive impact of caffeine on individuals’ physical and mental states remains uncertain, the consumption of caffeine elevates the health risks for individuals with heart conditions.

Avoid the Use and Abuse of Drugs.

It is suggested only to use those controlled drugs that your doctor prescribes. Abuse in drug use can result in the following conditions: 1) addiction/dependence, 2) the possibility of an overdose, 3) disease, 4) family and society problems, 5) accidents and 6) death.

Sleep is the Daily Hours the Body Requires to Function Effectively and Productively. 

Generally (although there are individual variations), the body requires seven (7) to eight (8) hours of sleep at night. Not getting enough sleep is associated with accidents (e.g., traffic), general fatigue, and depression.

Use Safety and Preventive Measures to Avoid Accidents.

This behavior encompasses the following actions: 1) Car drivers and pedestrians must obey traffic laws and wear seat belts; 2) Properly identify, label, close, and store all potential poisons (medication, cleaning agents, insecticides, etc.) out of children’s reach; 3) Store kitchen utensils in secure locations.

where children cannot reach them; 4) keep fire extinguishers and detectors in the home and, if possible, in the car; 5) do not consume alcohol or drugs if you are going to drive and/or participate in potentially dangerous recreational or occupational activities; 7) identify sources of potential danger in all activities and places attended,

including the home; 8) avoid traveling on dark and/or deserted paths, streets and entrances; 9) thaw food in the refrigerator (not at room temperature; 10) know about first aid and have a first aid kit, both at home and in the car; 11) prepare a contingency plan and specific security measures when participating in camping, outdoor excursions or other recreational activities that take place in natural environments (e.g.,

SCUBA diving or freediving [holding your breath underwater] , camping in humid, dry or mountainous forests, practicing skydiving, “rapelling”, cave excursions), where there is a potential danger.

Choose Your Sexual Partner Carefully.

Getting to know your partner’s habits better before engaging in intimate relationships is crucial. Also, feel free to communicate your concerns. Communication is vital to an effective relationship.

Help Our Neighbour

We often focus our lives on only improving what affects us personally, and we do not reflect on the health of others who need humanitarian aid. We must ask ourselves, what am I doing to improve the quality of life of the less fortunate living in our country or another part of the world?

This behaviour is linked to our spiritual well-being. The “egocentrist” is heading towards degrading his well-being in all its dimensions.


What are the Factors Affecting Health and Illness?

Multifaceted factors influence health and illness. Lifestyle choices, genetics, environmental conditions, access to healthcare, socioeconomic status, and psychological well-being all play crucial roles.

Their interplay shapes our overall health, highlighting the importance of a holistic and proactive approach to well-being.

What is a Health and Wellness Essay?

A Health and Wellness Essay is a written composition exploring various physical, mental, and social well-being aspects. It delves into factors influencing health, lifestyle choices, preventive measures, and strategies for achieving overall wellness. Such essays promote awareness and understanding of holistic health principles.

How do You Maintain Health and Wellness?

Maintaining health and wellness involves a holistic approach. Prioritize regular exercise, balanced nutrition, and adequate sleep. Cultivate positive mental habits, manage stress, and nurture meaningful relationships. Stay proactive with healthcare check-ups. Strive for balance in all aspects of life to achieve harmonious and fulfilling well-being.


Myriad interrelated factors intricately weave the tapestry of health and wellness, exerting a significant influence on our overall well-being. These determinants encompass physical, mental, and social dimensions, creating a holistic framework that shapes our lives.

Lifestyle choices, including diet, exercise, and sleep patterns, are pivotal in maintaining optimal health. Equally vital are the psychological facets, encompassing stress management, emotional resilience, and cognitive well-being.

Additionally, the social environment, characterized by relationships, community support, and access to healthcare, stands as a cornerstone of wellness. Socioeconomic status, education, and cultural factors further contribute to this intricate web.

Recognizing the synergy among these elements empowers individuals and societies to make informed decisions that positively impact health and wellness. By fostering a proactive approach and embracing a comprehensive understanding of these factors, we pave the way for a healthier and more fulfilling life journey.

We must strive for balance across these domains, as their harmonious interplay fosters a resilient foundation for a vibrant and flourishing existence.

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